A null pointer or a pointer value that does not point to a valid object are not valid first arguments to printf. If the calling process tries to access memory in a manner that violates the protections then the kernel generates a SIGSEGV signal for the process.
Why printf is not signal safe. For added fun its not necessarily re-entrant. Prot is a combination of the following access flags. No the printf thread is not a safe one as we always use only one output buffer for the printfs.
This error was found with PVS-Studio static analysis tool. As a result of this the printf statements on a multi-threaded application are not safe. Printf doesnt work on its own.
The printf library call prints to stdout which is buffered. In your example the signal might be handled while the first printf is running and the second printf could mess up the state of. Please note that you should not use printf in any signal handling functionbecause it is not an async-signal-safe function and.
C was developed in 1972 by two guys Brian Kernighan and De. Use of non-reentrant functions eg malloc or printf inside signal handlers is also unsafe. Even if you use the stream in just signal handler two signal handlers can interfere.
It is not safe to call all functions such as printf from within a signal handler. I wont reiterate what the others have said. Why there is need of using in case if scanf function while not in case of printf function.
Depending on the compiler and microcontroller the format string may also be placed in memory rather than referenced from flash. The kinds of issues that render a function unsafe can be quickly understood when one considers the implementation of the stdio library all. Printfd d a b.
Andrew According to POSIX the write function is allowed inside a signal handler. Many functions are not async- signal-safe. Write is a single base system.
Printf is a large chunk of code made from a lot of functions and system calls. That means the behavior of the program is at the whim of the implementation. When executing a call that is not async-signal safe you get undefined results when a second signal hits a signal handler that is currently executing that function.
If you pass an invalid argument to printf or any other function the behavior is undefined–. IIRC you can flush stdout with fflush stdout. Reentrancy is the root cause in that case.
It calls many other functions and if you have little stack space you may not be able to use it at all to debug issues close to your stack limit. Since eventually printf ends in a write Im assuming it is valid. PROT_NONE or a bitwise-or of the other values in the following list.
If printf isnt valid than please supply a list of valid libc functions from inside signal handlers. Or you an print to stderr using fprintf stderr Your message here as stderr is not. Written by Andrey Karpov.
This problem cannot be solved by using synchronization primitives because any attempted synchronization between the signal handler and the operation being synchronized would produce immediate deadlock. You wont see any output until you either fill up or flush the buffer. PROT_NONE The memory cannot be accessed at all.
That should work – or its something close to that. In general sloppy usage of the functions printf sprintf fprintf and so on not only can lead to incorrect work of the program but cause potential vulnerabilities that someone can take advantage of. As a and b above are two variable and each has their own address assigned but instead of a and b we send the address of a and b respectively.
To avoid this the handler should not call printfitself when printfmight be interrupted by a signal. Ie if the function call works it is purely by accident not design. 1 printf is non-async-signal-safe because as you describe it ends up manipulating global state without synchronisation.
Printf does formatted printing that is the essence of it. When a signal arrives in the middle of a fprintf and if you use fprintf in handler both data could be corrupted as they operate on the same stream stdout. In particular nonreentrant functions are generally unsafe to call from a signal handler.
What I will do is give you an insight into the origins of the name. While WhatsApp collects a number of data from you the moment you log in including your user ID device ID advertising data purchase history product information etc Signal only asks for your mobile number to verify and register your profile. A useful technique is to use a signal handler to set a flag and then check that flag from.
C does not offer any guarantees when a program is invalid. In particular the POSIX specification and the Linux man page signal 7 require that all system functions directly or indirectly called from a signal function are async-signal safe.